Awareness and Practices of Pharmacists in the Use of Guidelines in the Management of Heart Failure in Nigeria

Chibuike Eze Nwafor *

Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Port Harcourt and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Marvis Somtochukwu Muo

Research Unit, Good Heart Medical Consultants Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background Pharmacist involvement in medication reconciliation and transitions of care in high-risk HF patients has become gold standard. The pharmacist is to provide patient education and assess for improper medication use at every visit.  Knowledge of the attitude and awareness of heart failure guidelines among pharmacists will aid the delivery of effective interventions to prevent disease progression and control cardiovascular complications among these patients. The study points out the awareness and attitudes of pharmacists towards guideline adherence in the management of heart failure patients in southern, Nigeria.

Methods: A survey was conducted among 320 pharmacists, yielding a response rate of 68.75%. Demographic characteristics, guideline awareness, frequency of reference, access sources, perceptions, and challenges were computed and analyzed.

Results: Pharmacists exhibited heterogeneous demographics, with varied experience (1-5 years: 50.00%), education (B Pharm: 59.09%), and practice areas (clinical pharmacy: 48.18%). While 75.00% were aware of heart failure guidelines, 61.36% referenced AHA/ACC/HFSA guidelines most frequently. Access was diverse, including national/international websites and professional journals. Positive attitudes towards guideline-mediated management were prevalent (relevant: 79.54%), though barriers such as lack of awareness (50.00%) and time constraints (25.00%) were noted. Perceived adequacy of guidelines in addressing challenges was divided (confident: 50.00%, uncertain: 43.18%, skeptical: 6.82%).

Conclusion: Nigerian pharmacists demonstrated awareness and positive attitudes towards heart failure guidelines, yet face barriers to adherence. Tailored interventions such as inclusivity of the Nigerian pharmacists in the decision-making societies and other interventions are warranted to enhance guideline utilization and optimize patient outcomes.

Keywords: pharmacists, guidelines, heart failure, perception, attitudes, awareness, HF treatments

How to Cite

Nwafor , Chibuike Eze, and Marvis Somtochukwu Muo. 2024. “Awareness and Practices of Pharmacists in the Use of Guidelines in the Management of Heart Failure in Nigeria”. Asian Journal of Cardiology Research 7 (1):94-103.


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