Fagerstrom Test: A Tool for Assessing Risk of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Nicotine Users

Gallusena Erickatulistiawan *

Cardiovascular Department, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University – Saiful Anwar Hospital, Malang, Indonesia.

Cholid Tri T

Cardiovascular Department, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University – Saiful Anwar Hospital, Malang, Indonesia.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The research paper titled "Fagerstrom Test: Evaluating Subclinical Cardiovascular Risk in Nicotine Dependents" delves into the association between nicotine addiction and the likelihood of developing subclinical cardiovascular issues. This investigation utilizes the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), a widely recognized tool for gauging the severity of nicotine addiction, where higher scores reflect more intense dependency. Given the significant public health issue posed by cardiovascular disease and the known risks associated with smoking, the review critically examines existing studies on how nicotine affects cardiovascular health, the predictive capacity of the Fagerstrom score for cardiovascular events, and the broader consequences for those who use nicotine and their healthcare providers. A pivotal finding of this review is the potential link between nicotine dependency, as determined by the FTND, and an elevated risk of subclinical cardiovascular diseases. However, it's noted that nicotine may not be the only factor contributing to cardiovascular harm, as other elements in traditional cigarettes could also be influential. The study underscores the necessity of considering nicotine dependence in cardiovascular risk assessments for smokers and stresses the urgency for more comprehensive research to fully grasp the connection between nicotine addiction and cardiovascular health.

Keywords: Fagestrom test, subclinical cardiovascular disease

How to Cite

Erickatulistiawan, Gallusena, and Cholid Tri T. 2024. “Fagerstrom Test: A Tool for Assessing Risk of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Nicotine Users”. Asian Journal of Cardiology Research 7 (1):58-63.


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