Assessment of Occupational Noise Exposure Effects on Cardiovascular Functions of Saw-Mill Workers
Asian Journal of Cardiology Research,
Aim: We aimed at assessing the effects of occupational noise exposure on cardiovascular functions of saw-mill workers in Nnewi metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study comparing saw-mill workers occupationally exposed to intense noise levels with unexposed control.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Human Physiology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, between February, 2019 and March 2020.
Methodology: Fifty saw-mill workers (26 males, 24 females), of mean age 30.84 ± 6.26 years and 50 controls (18 males, 32 females; mean age, 26.32 ± 6.32 years) participated in the study. The mean ambient noise level for each site was obtained with a sound meter measurement prior to cardiovascular function test for each participant. The noise level, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) measurements were done for the saw-mill workers when the machines were in operation. Other parameters such as mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP), rate pressure product (RPP), cardiac output (CO) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were determined using appropriate scientific equations.
Results: Saw-mill workers indicated significantly higher (p<0.05) mean systolic BP, diastolic BP, MAP, RPP and PP, but lower (p<0.05) mean CO, and VO2 compared with the control. No significant difference was observed in HR between the two groups. Incidences of both systolic and diastolic hypertension and abnormally high MAP were greater in sawmill workers compared to the control. The risk of systolic hypertension, abnormally high MAP, among sawmill workers was higher compared to the control.
Conclusion: Our study revealed that hypertension and other abnormal cardiovascular outcomes were more prevalent in the noise-exposed saw-mill workers compared to unexposed control. These findings may serve to increase workers’ awareness about effects of occupationally noisy environments on their health and suggest the need to reduce workplace noise levels in order to improve their cardiovascular health.
- cardiovascular functions
- blood pressure
- heart rate
- rate pressure product
- pulse pressure
- oxygen consumption
How to Cite
Münzel T, Gori T, Babisch W, Basner M. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure. Eur Heart J. 2014;35(13):829–836.
Center for Disease Control. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Review on ‘Reducing noise exposure – Guidance and Regulations’.
Assessed on 01/08/ 2021.
Aruofor RO. The Nigerian Forestry Outlook Study. 2001. Available at http://www.fao.org/forestry/FON/ FONS/outlook/Africa/AFRhom-e.stm. Assessed 01/08/2021
Fuwape JA. Developments in wood-based industries in Nigeria. Foresea Miyazaki. 1998;2:575-585.
Davies HW, Teschke K, Kennedy SM., Hodgson MR, Demers PA. Occupational noise exposure and hearing protector use in Canadian lumber mills. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2008;6(1):32-41.
Aremu AS, Aremu AO, Olukanni DO. Assessment Of Noise Pollution From Sawmill Activities In Ilorin, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), 2015;34(1):72-79.
Alamgir H, Tompa E, Koehoorn M, Ostry A, Demers PA. Cost and Compensation of work related injuries in British Columbia saw mills. Occup Environ Med, 2006; 64: 196-201.
Owoyemi JM, Falemara BC, Owoyemi AJ. Noise pollution and control in mechanical processing wood industries. Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, 2017;2(2):1–11.
Ajayeoba AO, Olanipekun AA, Raheem WA, Ojo OO,Soji–Adekunle AR. Assessment of Noise Exposure of Sawmill Workers in Southwest, Nigeria. Sound and Vibration. 2021; 55(1): 69-85.
Uzorh AC. Analysis of industrial noise in a manufacturing company. International Journal of Engineering and Sciences, 2014;3(3):45–46.
Top Y, Adanur H, Öz M. Comparison of practices related to occupational health and safety in microscale wood-product enterprises. Safety Science, 2016;82:374–381.
Mong’are RO, Mburu C, Kiiyukia C. Assessment of occupational safety and health status of sawmilling industries in Nakuru County, Kenya. International Journal of Health Sciences, 2017; 5(4):75–102.
Thepaksorn P, SiriwongW, Neitzel RL, Somrongthong R, Techasrivichien T. Relationship between noise-related risk perception, knowledge, and the use of hearing protection devices among para rubber wood sawmill workers. Safety and Health at Work, 2017;9(1): 25–29.
Charan J and Biswas T. How to calculate sample size for different study designs in medical research. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 2013;35(2):121–126.
Ugbebor JN and Yorkor B. Assessment and Evaluation of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Sawmill Factories in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. International Journal on Emerging Technologies. 2015;6(2):01-08.
Iaizzo PA. Blood pressure, heart rate and diagnosis. Handbook of Cardiac Anatomy, Physiology, and Devices. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press, 2005;182.
Levanovich PE, Diaczok A, Rossi NF. Clinical and Molecular Perspectives of Monogenic Hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rev. 2020;16(2):91-107
Nagpal S, Walia L, Lata H, Sood A, Ahuja GK. Effects of exercise on rate pressure product in premenopausal and post-menopausal women with coronary artery disease. Indian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology. 2007;51(3):279-83.
Ansari M, Javadi H, Pourbehi M, Mogharrabi M, Rayzan M, Semnani S, Jallalat S, Amini A, Abbaszadeh M, Barekat M, Nabipour I, Assadi M. The association of rate pressure product (RPP) and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) findings: a preliminary study. Perfusion. 2012; 27(3): 207-13.
Agostoni P, Vignati C, Gentile P, Boiti C, Farina S, Salvioni E, Mapelli M, Magrì D, Paolillo S, Corrieri N, Sinagra G, Cattadori G. 2017. Reference values for peak exercise cardiac output in healthy individuals. Chest 2017;151:1329-1337.
Laboratory #5. Fuel consumption and resting metabolic rate -Indirect Calorimetery.
Available:https://leap.aacu.org/toolkit/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Engaging-Contingent-Faculty-with-Assignment-Design.pdf. Assessed on 01/08/2021.
Harris JA, Benedict FG. A biometric study of basal metabolism in man. Washington DC: Carnegie Ins. 1919;266.
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, et al. Seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42(6):1206–52.
Null R. Understanding Mean Arterial Pressure. Healthline Publications; 2018.
Available at https://www.healthline.com/health/mean-arterial-pressure
Assessed on 01/08/2021.
Seladi-Schulman J. Pulse Pressure Calculation Explained. Healthline Publications; 2018.
Assessed on 01/08/2021.
White WB. Heart rate and rate pressure product as determinants of cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 1999;S-5:12-50.
All About Heart Rate (Pulse). American Heart Association; 2015.
NESREA. National Environmental (Noise Standards and Control) Regulations, 2009. Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette. S.I. No. 35, FGP 104/102009/1,000 (OL 60), National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency, Federal Government Printer, Nigeria, 2009;96:67.
Lee JH, Kang W, Yaang S, Choy N, Lee C. Cohort study for the effect of chronic noise exposure on blood pressure among male workers in Busan, Korea. Am J Ind Med, 2009; 52:509-517.
Chang TY, Su TC, Lin SY, Jain RM, Chan CC. Effects of occupational noise exposure on 24-hour ambulatory vascular properties in male workers. Environ Health Perspect, 2007;115:1660-1664.
Lusk SL, Gillespie B, Hagerty BM, Ziemba RA. Acute effects of noise on blood pressure and heart rate. Arch Environ Health. 2004;59(8):392-399
Sakata K, Suwazono Y, Harada H, Okubo Y, Kobayashi E, Nogawa K. The relationship between shift work and the onset of hypertension in male Japanese workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2003;45:1002-1006
Hessel PA, Sluis-Cremer GK. Occupational noise exposure and blood pressure: longitudinal and cross-sectional observations in a group of underground miners. Arch Environ Health, 1994; 49:128-134.
DeMers D and Wachs D. Physiology, Mean Arterial Pressure. StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island (FL); 2021.
Wehrwein EA and Joyner MJ. Autonomic Nervous System in Handbook of Clinical Neurology; 2013.
Franklin SS, Gustin WIV, Wong ND. et al. Hemodynamic patterns of age-related changes in blood pressure. Circulation.1997;96:308-315.
Smulyan H and Safar ME. Systolic blood pressure revisited. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;29:1407-1413.
Travis D. Homan; Stephen Bordes; Erica Cichowski. Physiology, Pulse Pressure. In: StatPearls [Internet]: Treasure Island (FL); StatPearls Publishing; 2021.
Blacher J, Evans A, Arveiler D, Amouyel P, Ferrières J, Bingham A, Yarnell J, Haas B, Montaye M, Ruidavets JB, Ducimetière P., PRIME Study Group. Residual cardiovascular risk in treated hypertension and hyperlipidaemia: the PRIME Study. J Hum Hypertens. 2010;24(1):19-26.
Sbihi H, Davies H W, Demers P A. Hypertension in noise-exposed sawmill workers: a cohort study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine; London 2008;65(9):643.
McCunney RJ, Meyer JD. Occupational exposure to noise. In: Rom WN, ed. Environmental and Occupational Medicine. 3rd ed. Lippincot-Raven, Philadelphia, New York, USA, 1998;1345-57.
Jovanović J, Jovanović M. The effect of noise and vibration on the cardiovascular system in exposed workers and possibilities of preventing their harmful effects. Med Pregl. 1994;47:344-7. 
Lang T, Fouriaud C, Jacquinet- Salord MC. Length of occupational noise exposure and blood pressure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1992;63:369-72. 
Tomei G, et al. Occupational exposure to noise and the cardiovascular system: a meta-analysis [J]. Sci Total Environ 2010;408(4):681–689.
Wu X, Yang D, Fan W, Fan C, Wu G. Cardiovascular risk factors in noise-exposed workers in china: Small area study[J]. Noise Health, 2017;19(91):245–253.
Kelsey RM, Blascovich J, Tomaka J, Leitten CL, Schneider TR, Wiens S. Cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation to recurrent psychological stress: effects of prior task exposure. Psychophysiology, 1999;36:818-831.
NICE. Diagnosis and Management of Headaches in Young People and Adults. Clinical Guideline 150, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, United Kingdom, 2012.
Münzel T, Sørensen M. Noise Pollution and Arterial Hypertension. European Cardiology Review. 2017;12(1):26–9.
Ndrepepa A, Twardella D. Relationship between noise annoyance from road traffic noise and cardiovascular diseases: A meta-analysis. Noise Health. 2011;13: 251–9.
Kristal-Boneh E, Melamed S, Harari G, Green MS. Acute and chronic effects of noise exposure on blood pressure and heart rate among industrial employees: the Cordis Study. Arch Environ Health. 1995; 50(4):298–304.
Dimkpa U. Post-exercise heart rate recovery: An index of cardiovascular fitness. JEP online 2009;12(1):19-22.
Abstract View: 87 times
PDF Download: 24 times