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Background: Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine in human plasma that plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. On the other hand, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) is a stress responsive cytokine linked to obesity-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer.
Aim: This was a cross sectional study designed to evaluate the serum levels of adiponectin and GDF-15 in adult adult male cigarette smokers.
Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects comprising 40 smokers and 40 non-smokers within the age range of 18 to 60 years were selected for this study. Serum levels of adiponectin and GDF-15 were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.
Results: The mean value of adiponectin was significantly lower (p<0.05) among smokers than non-smokers while the mean value of GDF-15 was of non-significant difference when compared with smokers and non-smokers (p>0.05). Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of adiponectin when compared with the frequency (r=-0.364) and duration of smoking (r=-0.529) (p<0.05) respectively. On the other hand, the mean level of GDF-15 showed a significant negative association (r=-0.445 and p=0.040) between the duration of smoking and a non-significant negative correlation between smoking frequency (r=-0.265 and p=0.099).
Conclusion: The significant reduction in the mean levels of adiponectin amongst smokers and the significant negative correlation between serum level of GDF-15 and the duration of smoking among smokers suggests a high level of cardio-metabolic risk in cigarette smokers. Further cardiovascular related study of adiponectin and Growth Differentiation Factor-15 is recommended to buttress the cardio-metabolic potentials of adiponectin and GDF-15.
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