Risk Factors of Hypertension among Cardiac Patients in Bangladesh- A Single Center Study
Issue: 2023 - Volume 6 [Issue 1]
Md. Hasibul Hasan *
Department of Cardiology, Mugda Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Md. Abdur Rashid
250 Bed General Hospital, Meherpur, Bangladesh.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Background: Hypertension, commonly known as high blood pressure, is a pervasive health issue worldwide, and its prevalence is particularly concerning among cardiac patients in Bangladesh. Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the country, and hypertension is a well-established risk factor for these conditions.
Aim of the Study: The aim of the study was to assess the risk factors of hypertension among cardiac patients in Bangladesh.
Methods: This cross-sectional observational study took place at the Department of Cardiology, Mugda Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, from January 2022 to December 2022. A total of 180 cases of hypertension lasting more than a year enrolled in this study as study population. A purposive sampling method was applied, and data collection utilized a semi-structured, pre-designed questionnaire. MS Office tools SPSS version 23.0 were used for data analysis.
Results: Approximately 27% of participants had hypertension for less than 5 years, while 19% for 5 to 10 years, and 16% for 10 to 14 years. Remarkably, 28% managed hypertension for over 20 years. The most frequent risk factors were hyperlipidemia (34%), physical inactivity (24%), family history of hypertension (20%), obesity (19%), smoking (17%), and diabetes (12%).
Conclusion: Among the cardiac patients in Bangladesh, the most potential risk factors for hypertension are hyperlipidemia, physical inactivity, family history of hypertension, obesity, smoking, and diabetes.
Keywords: Risk factors, hypertension, cardiac patients, family history, physical activity
How to Cite
Tanuseputro P, Manuel DG, Leung M, et al. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Canada. Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 2003;19(11):1249-59.
BeLue R, Okoror TA, Iwelunmor J, et al. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective. Global Health. 2009; 5:10.
Whitworth JA; World Health Organization, International Society of Hypertension Writing Group. 2003 World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Hypertension (ISH) statement on management of hypertension. J Hypertens. 2003;21:1983-92.
Hemmelgarn BR, Chen G, Walker R, et al. Trends in antihypertensive drug prescriptions and physician visits in Canada between 1996 and 2006. Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 2008; 24(6):507-12.
Campbell NR, Tu K, Brant R, et al. The impact of the Canadian Hypertension Education Program on antihypertensive prescribing trends. Hypertension. 2006; 47(1):22-8.
Appel LJ, Champagne CM, Harsha DW, et al. Effects of comprehensive lifestyle modification on blood pressure control: main results of the PREMIER clinical trial. JAMA. 2003;289(16):2083-93.
Patnode CD, Evans CV, Senger CA, et al. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults Without Known Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2017;318(2):175-93.
Pazoki R, Dehghan A, Evangelou E, et al. Genetic Predisposition to High Blood Pressure and Lifestyle Factors: Associations with Midlife Blood Pressure Levels and Cardiovascular Events. Circulation. 2018; 137(7):653-61.
Jousilahti P, Laatikainen T, Peltonen M, et al. Primary prevention and risk factor reduction in coronary heart disease mortality among working-aged men and women in eastern Finland over 40 years: population-based observational study. BMJ. 2016; 352: i721.
Pennant M, Davenport C, Bayliss S, et al. Community programs for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2010; 172(5):501-16.
Statistics Canada. Population Trends by Age and Sex, 2016 Census of Population. Available:https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/ pub/11-627-m/11-627-m2017016-eng.htm.
Public Health Agency of Canada. Tackling Obesity in Canada: Obesity and Excess Weight Rates in Canadian Adults. Available:https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/ services/publications/healthy-living/ obesity-excess-weight-rates-canadian-adults. html.
Colley RC, Garriguet D, Janssen I, et al. Physical activity of Canadian adults: accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Reports. 2011;22 (1):7-14.
Garriguet D. Sodium consumption at all ages. Health Reports. 2007;18 (2):47-52.
Bacurau AGdM, Francisco PMSB. Reasons for non-vaccination against influenza among older adults with hypertension in Brazil: a cross-sectional study. Sao Paulo Med J. 2020;138:322–325.
Zinat Motlagh SF, Chaman R, Ghafari SR, et al. Knowledge, treatment, control, and risk factors for hypertension among adults in Southern Iran. Int J Hypertension. 2015;2015.
Hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet. 2005;365(9455):217–223.
Das SK, Sanyal K, Basu A. Study of urban community survey in India: growing trend of high prevalence of hypertension in a developing country. International Journal of Medical Sciences. 2005;2(2):70 –78.
Vasan RS, Larson MG, Leip EP, Kannel WB, Levy D. Assessment of frequency of progression to hypertension in non-hypertensive participants in the Framingham Heart Study: a cohort study. The Lancet. 2001;358(9294):1682 –1686.
Ayele, Habtamu, Akalu Banbeta, and Abiyot Negash. "Cardiovascular disease risk factors in hypertensive patients: a case study of Jimma University Medical Center." Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology. 2022;9:23333928221078-601.
Parikh NI, Pencina MJ, Wang TJ, et al. A risk score for predicting near-term incidence of hypertension: The Framingham Heart Study. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2008;148(2):102-10.
Kivimaki M, Tabak AG, Batty GD, et al. Incremental predictive value of adding past blood pressure measurements to the Framingham hypertension risk equation: The Whitehall II Study. Hypertension. 2010; 55(4):1058-62.
Jonas JB, Nangia V, Matin A, Joshi PP, Ughade SN. Prevalence, awareness, control, and associations of arterial hypertension in a rural central India population: The Central India Eye and Medical Study. Am J Hypertens. 2010; 23(4):347–350.
Sakboonyarat B, Rangsin R, Kantiwong A, Mungthin M. Prevalence and associated factors of uncontrolled hypertension among hypertensive patients: a nationwide survey in Thailand. BMC Res Notes. 2019;12(1):1–8.
Corvol P, Jeunemaitre X, Charru A, Soubrier F. Can the genetic factors influence the treatment of systemic hypertension? The case of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Am J Cardiol. 1992;70(12): D14–D20.
Carmelli D, Robinette D, Fabsitz R. Concordance, discordance and prevalence of hypertension in World War II male veteran twins. J Hypertens. 1994;12(3): 323–328.
Awoke A, Awoke T, Alemu S, Megabiaw B. Prevalence and associated factors of hypertension among adults in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2012;12(1):1–6
Giday A, Tadesse B. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in rural and urban areas of southern Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J. 2011;49(2):139–147.
Hamer M. The anti-hypertensive effects of exercise. Sports Med. 2006;36(2):109–116.
Kumar C, Sasi Sekhar T, Sahithi B. Hypertension–the silent killer, awareness of the risk factors and complications of hypertension among hypertensives. Int J Adv Res. 2006;4(6):1277–1281.
Kirkland SA, MacLean DR, Langille DB, Joffres MR, MacPherson KM, Andreou P. Knowledge and awareness of risk factors for cardiovascular disease among Canadians 55 to 74 years of age: results from the Canadian Heart Health Surveys, 1986-1992. CMAJ (Can Med Assoc J). 1999;161(8): S10.