Assessment of Lipid Profile Levels among Older Adults in Nnewi

Chukwuemeka Emmanuel Ogbodo *

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Ejike Christian Onah

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Chukwuemeka Samuel Meludu

Department of Human Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Chekwube MaryAnn Ogbodo

Department of Nursing Services, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Awka, Nigeria.

Ifeoma Priscilla Ezeugwunne

Department of Human Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

Friday Alfred Ehiaghe

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background/ Objective of Study: Cardiovascular diseases continue to be the main cause of morbidity and mortality. Aging is an important modifier of cardiovascular health.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated the lipid profile levels of older adults in Nnewi, Nigeria.  In total, 128 subjects were enlisted for the study using simple random sampling.  They were divided into two equal groups: older people (n=64) and control groups (n=64). The older adults consist of 32 males and 32 females, between the ages of 45 and 75 years who gave written informed consent. The control group consists of 64 students, 32 males and 32 females, between the ages of 18 and 30 years. Five milliliters of fasting venous blood sample was collected from each participant, and dispensed into a plain container for analysis of the lipid profile levels. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined using enzymatic colorimetric methods while low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated as: LDL-C = (Total Cholesterol) − (HDL-C) − (TGs/5).

Results: Results showed that the older persons had mean serum levels of TC (4.65±0.66 Vs 3.90±0.60), TG (1.52±0.44 Vs 1.08±0.26), and LDL-C (2.79±0.62 Vs 2.06±0.59) that were significantly higher than those of the control group, but HDL-C (1.16±0.08 Vs 1.34±0.09) level was significantly lower (P-value= 0.000) respectively. Additionally, older male and female adults had significantly higher mean serum levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C, but significantly lower HDL-C compared to the male and female control groups (P-value= 0.000) respectively. TC and age (r=0.312; P-value= 0.012), LDL-C and age (r=0.302; P-value= 0.015), and LDL-C and TC (r=0.968; P-value= 0.015) all showed statistically significant positive relationships in the control group.

Also, there was a significant positive correlation between age and TG (r=0.260; P-value= 0.038), TC and TG(r=0.375; P-value= 0.002), and TC and LDL-C (r=0.940; P-value= 0.000) in the older individuals.

Conclusion: Ageing may, thus, have a deleterious impact on lipid profile.

Keywords: Older adults, aging, cardiovascular health, lipid profile

How to Cite

Ogbodo, C. E., Onah, E. C., Meludu, C. S., Ogbodo , C. M., Ezeugwunne , I. P., & Ehiaghe , F. A. (2023). Assessment of Lipid Profile Levels among Older Adults in Nnewi. Asian Journal of Cardiology Research, 6(1), 132–141. Retrieved from


Download data is not yet available.


Mc Namara K, Alzubaidi H, Jackson JK. Cardiovascular disease as a leading cause of death: how are pharmacists getting involved?. Integrated Pharmacy Research & Practice. 2019;8:1-11. DOI:10.2147/IPRP.S133088

Jebari-Benslaiman S, Galicia-García U, Larrea-Sebal A, Olaetxea JR, Alloza I, Vandenbroeck K, Benito-Vicente A, Martín C. Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022;23(6):3346.

DOI: 10.3390/ijms23063346.

Li S, Guo YL, Zhao X, Zhang Y, Zhu CG, Wu NQ, Xu RX, Qing P, Gao Y, Li XL, Sun J, Liu G, Dong Q, Li JJ. Novel and traditional lipid-related biomarkers and their combinations in predicting coronary severity. Scientific Reports. 2017; 7(1):360. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-00499-9.

Rodgers JL, Jones J, Bolleddu SI, Vanthenapalli S, Rodgers LE, Shah K, Karia K, Panguluri SK. Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Gender and Aging. Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease. 2019; 6(2):19.

DOI: 10.3390/jcdd6020019.

Sazlina SG, Sooryanarayana R, Ho BK, Omar MA, Krishnapillai AD, Mohd Tohit N, Inche Zainal Abidin S, Ariaratnam S, Ahmad NA. Cardiovascular disease risk factors among older people: Data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. PLoS One. 2020; 15(10):e0240826. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0240826.

Rogers K, Simic P, Guarente LP. Aging. Encyclopedia Britannica; 2020.

Available: (Accessed 21 April, 2023).

WHO. WHO Fact Sheets: Aging and health; 2021.

Available: (Accessed 21 April, 2023).

Močnik M, Marčun Varda N. Lipid Biomarkers and Atherosclerosis-Old and New in Cardiovascular Risk in Childhood. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2023; 24(3):2237. DOI: 10.3390/ijms24032237.

Li-Beisson Y, Nakamura Y, Harwood J. Lipids: From Chemical Structures, Biosynthesis, and Analyses to Industrial Applications. Subcellular Biochemistry. 2016; 86:1-18. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-25979-6_1.

Feng L, Nian S, Tong Z, Zhu Y, Li Y, Zhang C, Bai X, Luo X, Wu M, Yan Z. Age-related trends in lipid levels: a large-scale cross-sectional study of the general Chinese population. British Medical Journal Open. 2020; 10(3):e034226.

DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034226.

Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, Cushman M, Das SR, Deo R, de Ferranti SD, Floyd J, Fornage M, Gillespie C, Isasi CR, Jiménez MC, Jordan LC, Judd SE, Lackland D, Lichtman JH, Lisabeth L, Liu S, Longenecker CT, Mackey RH, Matsushita K, Mozaffarian D, Mussolino ME, Nasir K, Neumar RW, Palaniappan L, Pandey DK, Thiagarajan RR, Reeves MJ, Ritchey M, Rodriguez CJ, Roth GA, Rosamond WD, Sasson C, Towfighi A, Tsao CW, Turner MB, Virani SS, Voeks JH, Willey JZ, Wilkins JT, Wu JH, Alger HM, Wong SS, Muntner P; American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017; 135(10):e146-e603. DOI: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000485.

Jacobson TA, Ito MK, Maki KC, Orringer CE, Bays HE, Jones PH, McKenney JM, Grundy SM, Gill EA, Wild RA, Wilson DP, Brown WV. National lipid association recommendations for patient-centered management of dyslipidemia: part 1--full report. The Journal of Clinical Lipidology. 2015; 9(2):129-69. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacl.2015.02.003.

Ezeugwunne IP, Ezeora JC, Ogbodo EC, Analike RA, Okwara JE, Oguaka VN, Amah UK, Meludu SC. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors of Adult Male and Female Diabetic Patients Attending Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. International Journal of Novel Research in Healthcare and Nursing. 2017; 4(2): 68-72.

González-Rivas JP, Nieto-Martínez R, Brajkovich I, Ugel E, Rísquez A. Prevalence of Dyslipidemias in Three Regions in Venezuela: The VEMSOLS Study Results. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia. 2018; 110(1):30-35.

DOI: 10.5935/abc.20170180.

Vizentin NP, Cardoso PMS, Maia CAG, Alves IP, Aranha GL, Giannini DT. Dyslipidemia in Adolescents Seen in a University Hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil: Prevalence and Association. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia. 2019; 112(2):147-151. DOI: 10.5935/abc.20180254.

Nnamudi AC, Orhue JEN, Ijeh II. Assessment of the Levels of Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Hyperglycemic Young Nigerian Adults. European Journal of Biology and Biotechnology. 2020; 1(3): 1-7.

Ezeugwunne IP, Ogbodo EC, Nwankwo EC, Analike RA, Onah CE, Okwara JE, Amah UK, Oguaka VN, Asebioyo SJ, Meludu SC (2017). Evaluation of Cardiovascular Status of Apparently Healthy Sedentary Subjects in Nnewi, Anambra State Using Framingham Risk Score Calculator. International Journal of Innovative Studies in Sciences and Engineering Technology. 2017;3(2): 1-6.

Okwara JE, Ike NA, Ogbodo EC, Okwara NA, Igwebuobi CF, Odumodu IO, Amah AK, Okezie, AO Onyenekwe CC. Assessment of cardiovascular disease awareness and risk factors in a market population in Nnewi, Nigeria. Advances in Bioresearch. 2021;12 (4):236-243.

Roeschlaw P, Bernt E, Guber JW. Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry. 1974;12:403.

Schettler G, Nussel E. Determination of serum total cholesterol by enzymatic Colorimetric test. Arbeistmed Soziaalmed Praventivmed. 1975;10: 25.

Assmann G, Schriewer H, Schmitz G, Hägele EO. Quantification of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol by precipitation with phosphotungstic acid/MgCl2. Clinical Chemistry. 1983;29(12): 2026–2030.

Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clinical Chemistry. 1972;18:499-502.

Pataky MW, Young WF, Sreekumaran Nair K. Hormonal and Metabolic Changes of Aging and the Influence of Lifestyle Modifications. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2021;96(3):788-814.

Petr MA, Alfaras I, Krawcyzk M, Bair W-N, Mitchell SJ, Morrell CH, Studenski SA, Price NL, Fishbein KW, Spencer RG, Scheibye-Knudsen M, Lakatta EG, Ferrucci L, Aon MA, Bernier M, de Cabo R. A cross-sectional study of functional and metabolic changes during aging through the lifespan in male mice. ELife. 2021;10:e62952.

Palmer AK, Jensen MD. Metabolic changes in aging humans: Current evidence and therapeutic strategies. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2022; 132(16):e158451.

Duan Y, Gong K, Xu S, Zhang F, Meng X, Han J. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in health and diseases: from mechanisms to targeted therapeutics. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy. 2022;7:265.

Soliman GA. Dietary Cholesterol and the Lack of Evidence in Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients. 2018;10(6):780.

Ruuth M, Lahelma M, Luukkonen PK, Lorey MB, Qadri S, Sädevirta S, Hyötyläinen T, Kovanen PT, Hodson L, Yki-Järvinen H, Öörni K. Overfeeding Saturated Fat Increases LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) Aggregation Susceptibility While Overfeeding Unsaturated Fat Decreases Proteoglycan-Binding of Lipoproteins. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2021;41 (11):2823–2836.

Ibrahim MA, Asuka E, Jialal I. Hypercholesterolemia. In: StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing, 2022. (Accessed April 8, 2023).

Emma-Okon BO, Onayade AA, Adegoke AO, Soyinka JO, Ademigbuji EA. Lipid profile in an apparently healthy Nigerian population. The Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2014; 21(4):290– 293.

Ramalan M, Uloko A, Fakhradeen M, Gezawa I. Lipid profile in apparently healthy Nigerian adults. SFEBES2015 Poster Presentations Obesity, diabetes, metabolism and cardiovascular (108 abstracts). Endocrine Abstracts. 2015; 38:276. DOI: 10.1530/endoabs.38.P276

Adeloye D, Abaa DQ, Owolabi EO, Ale BM, Mpazanje RG, Dewan MT, Omoyele C, Ezeigwe N, Alemu W, Harhay MO, Auta A, Adewole IF. Prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Nigeria: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health. 2020;178:167–178.

Ahaneku GI, Ahaneku JE, Osuji CU, Oguejiofor CO, Anisiuba BC, Opara PC. Lipid and Some Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Assessment in a Rural Community in Eastern Nigeria. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. 2015;5(4):284–291.

Emmanuel B, Nzeagwu O, Iheme G. Anthropometric status and lipid profile of older persons in Dekina Local Government Area of Kogi State Nigeria. Human Nutrition & Metabolism. 2022; 30(2022): 200171.

Kumari A, Kristensen KK, Ploug M, Winther A-ML. The Importance of Lipoprotein Lipase Regulation in Atherosclerosis. Biomedicines. 2021;9: 782.

Paragh G, Németh Á, Harangi M, Banach M, Fulop P. Causes, clinical findings and therapeutic options in chylomicronemia syndrome, a special form of hypertriglyceridemia. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2022; 21:21.


Goldberg RB, Chait A. A Comprehensive Update on the Chylomicronemia Syndrome. Frontiers in Endocrinology (Lausanne). 2020;11:593931.

Vinagre CG, Freitas FR, de Mesquita CH, Vinagre JC, Mariani AC, Kalil-Filho R, Maranhão RC. Removal of Chylomicron Remnants from the Bloodstream is Delayed in Aged Subjects. Aging and Disease. 2018; 9(4):748–754.

Spitler KM, Davies BSJ. Aging and plasma triglyceride metabolism. Journal of lipid Research. 2020; 61(8), 1161–1167. Available:

Camell CD, Sander J, Spadaro O, Lee A, Nguyen KY, Wing A, Goldberg EL, Youm YH, Brown CW, Elsworth J, Rodeheffer MS, Schultze JL, Dixit VD. Inflammasome-driven catecholamine catabolism in macrophages blunts lipolysis during ageing. Nature. 2017; 550(7674):119-123. DOI: 10.1038/nature24022.

Frasca D, Blomberg BB, Paganelli R. Aging, Obesity, and Inflammatory Age-Related Diseases. Frontiers in Immunology. 2017;8:1745. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01745.

Franceschi C, Garagnani P, Parini P, Giuliani C, Santoro A. Inflammaging: a new immune-metabolic viewpoint for age-related diseases. Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 2018; 14(10):576-590. DOI: 10.1038/s41574-018-0059-4.

Menge DM, Nair NK, Varghese TP and Vijayakumar PRA: High-density lipoprotein: role in reverse cholesterol transport. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research. 2019; 10(2): 481-88.


Feingold KR. (2021). Introduction to Lipids and Lipoproteins. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Blackman MR., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA):, Inc.; 2000.

Available: (Accessed 18 April, 2023).

Vilahur G. High-density lipoprotein benefits beyond the cardiovascular system: A potential key role for modulating acquired immunity through cholesterol efflux. Cardiovascular Research. 2017;113:e51–e53.

Kosmas CE, Silverio D, Sourlas A, Montan PD, Guzman E. Dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein and atherogenesis. Vessel Plus. 2019;3:2. Available:

De Melo LGP, Nunes SOV, Anderson G, Vargas HO, Barbosa DS, Galecki P, Carvalho AF, Maes M. Shared metabolic and immune-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways in the metabolic syndrome and mood disorders. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. 2017;78:34-50.

DOI: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2017.04.027.

Ronsein GE, Heinecke JW. Time to ditch HDL-C as a measure of HDL function? Current Opinion in Lipidology. 2017; 28(5):414-418. DOI: 10.1097/MOL.0000000000000446.

Sacks FM, Jensen MK. From High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol to Measurements of Function: Prospects for the Development of Tests for High-Density Lipoprotein Functionality in Cardiovascular Disease. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2018;38(3):487-499. DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.117.307025.

Cho KH, Park HJ, Kim SJ, Kim JR. Decrease in HDL-C is Associated with Age and Household Income in Adults from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017: Correlation Analysis of Low HDL-C and Poverty. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(18):E3329. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16183329.

Almahmoud QF, Alhaidar SM, Alkhenizan AH, Basudan LK, Shafiq M. Association Between Lipid Profile Measurements and Mortality Outcomes Among Older Adults in a Primary Care Setting: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Cureus. 2023;15(2): e35087. DOI:10.7759/cureus.35087

Rosada A, Kassner U, Weidemann F, König M, Buchmann N, Steinhagen-Thiessen E, Spira D. Hyperlipidemias in elderly patients: results from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASEII), a cross-sectional study. Lipids in Health and Diseases. 2020; 19(1):92. DOI: 10.1186/s12944-020-01277-9.